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The hybrid landscape in 2023: Beyond cybersecurity

European countries and NATO send tanks to Ukraine

February 2023

The globalization and the development of new technologies through the digital era have led to the emergence of a new framework of confrontation between countries and non-state actors: hybrid warfare. War conventional tactics, together with the so-called hybrid threats, constitute a recent area of exhaustive study, allowing a greater understanding of the policies and actions carried out by international actors in the geopolitical sphere. In this way, these threats have been included in the new strategic concept of NATO and the EU, in order to improve the deterrence process for future conflict scenarios in our society.


  1. Abstract

  2. A brief introduction towards hybrid threats

  3. The future of the security landscape

  4. The instrumentalization of mass migration

  5. Conclusions

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